In November of 1981, hundreds of people—cast members, crew, and extras—descended on the small mountain town of Hope, British Columbia, to film one of history's most influential action movies. Rambo: First Blood tells the story of Vietnam War veteran John Rambo (played by Sylvester Stallone), who travels to the fictional town of Hope, Washington, and, while there, is arrested under a trumped up charge by the town's sheriff, Will Teasel (Brian Dennehy). Rambo escapes after a deadly conflict between the two men, and a bloody manhunt begins, one that almost levels the small town.
In October of 2022, Hope will celebrate the 40th anniversary of First Blood's filming. Today, four decades after the movie's theatrical release, thousands of people still visit Hope every year to see the town where their favourite movie was shot. The film includes much to enjoy for viewers of all kinds: exciting action sequences, impressive stunt work, and intelligent and emotional dialogue which explores themes of post-traumatic stress disorder, the mistreatment of war veterans, abuses of power by authority figures, and the horrors of war.
Join us as we explore the town where it all began and travel through some of the iconic scenes from one of pop culture's most enduring films. Route
The tour begins on Water Avenue at the location of Rambo's first encounter with Sheriff Teasle. From there, we will head east to the crossing of 3rd Avenue and the CN railway, where Rambo performs one the most epic stunts of the movie. Next, we will stop by Hope's unique "H-tree", which Rambo speeds past on a motorcycle during the chase sequence. The following four stops are downtown, clustered around the intersection of Third Avenue and Wallace, which was the location of the sheriff's station and many other recognizable street scenes from the film's motorcycle chase.
To reach stop eight, return to Water Avenue and head south until you pass under the Hope Princeton highway overpass. Shortly after the overpass, on the left side of the road, is the entryway to the Hope Lookout Trail. Here, you will see the remnants of the "Gateway to Holidayland" sign that used to stand over the Trans Canada highway, greeting people on their way into Hope. The next stop is nearby at the site of the gas station which Rambo blows up during the movie's climax.
The second to last stop on the tour is an optional location. Visiting this stop and then returning downtown for the last stop of the tour is a four kilometre detour, so those on foot may choose to bypass it. This stop, however, is the location of the bridge where Sheriff Teasle drops Rambo off after telling him to leave town. While the location is the same, the actual bridge shown in the movie was replaced in 2011, much to the disappointment of First Blood fans everywhere.
Finally, the tour takes us back downtown to the corner of Water Avenue and Hudson Bay Street. At the nearby Chevron gas station, we visit a final scene from the motorcycle chase.
This project was made possible through a partnership with Tourism Hope, Cascades & Canyons.
1. The Feud Begins
This spot on Water Avenue was the location of the first fateful meeting between Sheriff Teasle (Brian Dennehy) and his soon-to-be mortal enemy, John Rambo. When Sheriff Teasle picks up the man who he sees only as a troublesome drifter and attempts to drive him out of town, he unknowingly becomes the catalyst for a chain of events that will shake the small mountain town to its core.
This spot has changed little since the filming of Rambo: First Blood four decades ago. The Chevron gas station, which features later in the film, is in the same location. The nearby building was once a Dairy Queen, but the roof has since been painted white, and the spot now houses the Hope Pizza Place. On the left side of the scene, the trees have grown in, blocking the Fraser River from view.
* * *
When the producers of First Blood searched for a location in which to stage their story, British Columbia quickly stepped up as a contender. Today, Vancouver and the surrounding areas host a thriving film and television industry from which the city's title "Hollywood North" originated. First Blood was the beginning. Tracy Paynter, from the Hope Visitor Centre, recently said in an interview that "[Hope] was really the birthplace of Hollywood North. So many movies after that, people started looking at British Columbia… and from there it really snowballed into what is now a billion-dollar industry in this province."1
Hope was chosen as the location for First Blood out of a long list of towns in British Columbia. Producer Ed Carlin joked that he had "seen more towns and trees in this province than most British Columbians."2 BC's tourism ministry also aggressively charmed the production company with promotions and subsidies, making filming and production cheaper than it would have been in Oregon or Washington.
As the setting for First Blood, Hope is ideal. The wet, misty weather perfectly matches the dark, ominous tone of the movie. The rugged, mountainous terrain and dense coastal forest provides an opportunity to showcase Rambo's extensive survival skills. When Rambo effortlessly dispatches the team of policemen attempting to capture him, it is clear that even the roughest terrain is little more than an inconvenience.
Rambo flees the police on a stolen motorcycle after he escapes from the sheriff's station. As he blazes out of town with the police hot on his trail, he executes an incredible stunt: jumping the train tracks of the CN railway where it crosses Third Avenue. Today, these tracks are still in use.
No action movie is complete without its stunts, and First Blood has enough to keep viewers on the edges of their seats. When Hope was chosen as the filming location, BC's Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure offered the production a special permit for filming and agreed to a temporary highway detour on two conditions: first, that inconvenience to the public was as minimal as possible, and second, that absolute safety was guaranteed during the more dramatic sequences.1
* * *
The safety of the cast, crew, and members of the public was a major priority during production, and precautions were taken to ensure that no one was hurt. Yet some accidents did still occur during filming.
On Monday, November 30, 1981, the crew were on Wallace Street filming the scene in which Rambo escapes the sheriff's station and speeds away on a stolen motorcycle. The scene was reportedly the first one shot in downtown Hope, and many spectators came out to watch. An accident occurred when the motorcycle unexpectedly shot into the crowd of spectators and hit a young boy. The Progress newspaper does not go into detail regarding the accident but assures readers that, "He was not injured seriously, recovering quickly after Stallone scooped him up in his arms."2
Recently, Sylvestor Stallone posted a photo on his Instagram page about another near accident. The photo was taken by a crew member and shows Stallone driving the motorcycle on a long dirt road, with Sheriff Teasle's car following behind. In the caption, Stallone reminisces, "I remember well. While doing this Stunt on FIRST BLOOD - a truck accidentally goes through on the other road block and we almost had a head on… Sweet memories."3
With the police in hot pursuit, Rambo speeds past the iconic “H-tree” on Hudson Bay Street.
Before the story of Rambo: First Blood stunned audiences on the big screen, it captured a generation of readers as the 1972 book First Blood. The film roughly follows the plot of the book, which is set in Madison, Kentucky, rather than Hope, Washington. But there are a few changes, both big and small.
* * *
Some more minor changes include the film's setting and the choice to have Rambo attacked by rats in the old mine as opposed to bats, which attack him in the book. However, the most significant changes were made to Rambo's character and to the story's ending. In the book, Rambo is depicted as more ruthless and bloodthirsty. When Sheriff Teasle's men hunt him through the woods in the book, he systematically murders each one before grievously wounding Teasle. In the film, he delivers a debilitating injury to each one, but no one is killed.
Sylvester Stallone was the primary driver behind these changes. When he accepted the role, he pushed for changes to the screenplay to make the character more sympathetic. According to Ted Kotcheff, the director of First Blood, "He [Rambo] was a Congressional Medal of Honor Winner, a Green Beret, he shouldn't be killing these guys just putting on uniforms for the weekend. As soon as Sylvester said it I knew he was absolutely right; I felt that this should be a guy who's sick and tired of violence. Of his own people being killed. Of the Vietnamese people being killed. The last thing he wants is to come back to America and start killing people."1
While the body count in this scene is lower than it is in the book, it is no less effective. The coastal rainforest was the perfect setting for Rambo's guerrilla tactics. As the police struggle through the dense undergrowth, Rambo uses the greenery to camouflage himself, jumping out to dispatch the men at strategic moments before sliding seamlessly back into the environment. When Rambo delivers the iconic line, "I could've killed them all, I could've killed you. In town you're the law, out here it's me," it is clear that his actions were those of mercy rather than weakness.2
4. Hope's Shops
In this scene, Sheriff Teasle cruises down Wallace Street in a police car. On the right, Midtown Shopping Plaza is still instantly recognizable. The front of Mountain Savings, at 10-800 Third Avenue, was blown apart in the film when Rambo shot out the storefronts of several businesses during the climax. When the production crew shot these scenes, they really were blowing out the buildings' actual windows. Mountain Savings' windows were completely shattered, but they were replaced only a day or two later. Today, the space is occupied by a hair salon and a health food store.
* * *
The community of Hope was excited to host the production of First Blood, and crowds frequently turned out to watch the filming. School age children were even given breaks from their studies to go on class field trips to the sets. Hope's businesses also wholeheartedly embraced the excitement, and many ran advertisements in the Hope Standard with a First Blood theme.
The first ad like this, published on November 18, reads, "HOLLYWOOD COMES TO HOPE with FIRST BLOOD SALE - Watch for Star Bargains From Hope Merchants in next week's issue of November 25 HOPE STANDARD."1
One ad that ran during this campaign was for the conveniently located Kettle Valley Restaurant on the corner of Wallace and Third, which had a perfect view of the action of filming. The ad invited customers to come for dinner and "Watch 'First Blood' in action with Sylvester (Rocky) Stallone and Kirk Douglas filmed Live, Ring Side from the Kettle Valley Restaurant".2
Another advertisement comes from Marion's Delicatessen, which features prominently in many of the movie's downtown scenes. The ad boasts that the business was chosen to cater for the production staff and thoughtfully welcomes the cast and film crew to the town. It also promotes its homemade Hungarian Goulash Soup, deli sandwiches, European style meats, pastries, and cheeses.3
While only a few of Hope's businesses directly referenced the movie in their ads, a handful of other local establishments cashed in on the excitement with movie "Star" themed sales and cheeky puns.
5. The Sheriff's Station
In one key scene in the film, Rambo jumps over a police car after fighting his way out of the sheriff's station where he was subjected to abuse at the hands of Sheriff Teasle and his men. The station was located in front of District Hall at the corner of Wallace Street and Third Avenue. Today, this intersection is remarkably unchanged. The Midtown Shopping Plaza, Delicatessen, and Hope Hotel buildings are still recognizable.
* * *
Most of the buildings which appear in the movie already existed in Hope, but some of the more notable buildings were specially built by the production company. The sheriff's station on the corner of Wallace and Third was one such building. It was only needed during the short time that filming occurred, but it was allegedly so well constructed that Brian Dennehy, who played Sheriff Teasle, "was convinced that the corner jailhouse was simply an existing town building taken over by the movie company."1
During the six weeks that First Blood filmed in Hope, the community newspaper, the Hope Standard, reported on the movie and the excitement that surrounded its production. In early November, before shooting began, the newspaper printed a casting call for extras for the film. On November 10, the Standard reported that 550 local residents had registered for this casting call. The production only needed around 100 extras, however, and one casting director noted that the competition was going to be "fierce."2
First Blood's involvement in the local community was not limited to hiring extras. They also sponsored a community contest to augment their set design. Merchants in Hope's downtown core competed to show off their storefronts' Christmas decorations, some of which appear in the movie's downtown scenes. The first prize winner of this decoration contest received a portable Panasonic colour television.3
When the winner was announced in the November 25 issue of the Standard, the newspaper printed a picture of the contest winner sitting next to Brian Dennehy with the first prize television in front of them. The caption reads, "Winning merchant Eldon Tidball, left, enjoys his prize of a colour television on the jailhouse movie set. Tidball won the Christmas decorating contest that was sponsored by First Blood. It appears he couldn't decide whether to watch the TV or Brian Dennehy, who plays the redneck sheriff in the movie."4
Publicist Burt Elias praised the community for welcoming the film's cast and crew. He added that the people of Hope could not be "nicer, politer or more enjoyable to be around," and that everyone was excited to have the production in town and were willing to help out.5
6. The Chase
In this scene, Rambo speeds on the stolen motorbike up the sidewalk of Wallace Street while startled pedestrians leap out of his path. Rambo could not have chosen a more perfect bike to steal for his frenzied escape from the police.
The motorcycle that Rambo hijacks is a first generation 1982 Yamaha XT250 dual-sport motorcycle, a vehicle known for its versatility and durability. In the film, the bike withstands every manoeuvre Rambo puts it through as he weaves through a pack of pedestrians, jumps the train tracks, and pushes high speeds both on and off road. These bikes were manufactured from 1980 until 1983 and could reach a top speed of 75 mph. This motorcycle is a perfect choice for anyone on the wrong side of the law.
* * *
Many of the motorcycle shots in the film were performed by Stallone himself. Some of the more dangerous stunts, like the jump over the tracks, necessitated an expert's help. However, Stallone noted that all of the motorcycle scenes were very dangerous. While the crew did have traffic control, it was difficult to prevent traffic on the highway entirely, and Stallone was almost involved in a head-on collision with a civilian truck. He also remembers the cold, and that there was a problem with the liquid freezing falling into his eyes as he sped down the icy roads at 50 miles per hour.1
While Sylvestor Stallone completed these scenes unharmed, one of the stuntmen was severely injured. After Rambo jumps the tracks, Sheriff Teasle's car follows, flying 15 to 20 feet past the tracks. While filming, however, the car made a hard landing. Stunt driver Bennie E. Dobbins was rushed to the Fraser Canyon Hospital, where it was determined that he had a compression lumbar fracture.2 Luckily, he was not paralyzed. The stunt was performed a second time with no injuries, and this is the version that is shown in the film.
7. Outpost Gun Shop
The Outpost Gun Shop was built at the intersection of Commission Street and Third Avenue specifically to be destroyed during filming. It was blown sky high by Rambo during the movie's climax. "You are not going to blow my business up!" He agreed eventually, but the explosion was very technical: it had to blow out, not up or back. The production team had to be very careful not to blow up the shoe-making business next door as well.
* * *
Destroying the gun shop is one of Rambo's final actions in the movie before he heads to the police station for his last confrontation with Sheriff Teasle. Sylvestor Stallone recalled this scene in the DVD commentary: "At the end of this, there was almost a terrible accident - As I'm backing out of this room, I'd fire the M16 into gunpowder and it flared within… I dunno, I singed my eyelashes. It was out there! Y'know, I don't mind doing some of these things but, you just never know. So right before this scene I had put fire retardant on my face and my neck, and it came in handy as you can see."1
After Rambo enters the police station, he notices through a skylight that Sheriff Teasle is hiding on the roof. Rambo shoots through the roof and hits Teasle in the leg, causing him to fall through the skylight. Brian Dennehy performed this stunt himself. In the DVD commentary, Stallone remembers the scene: "When I shoot Brian through the roof here, he falls down, he did the fall from about 8 feet up, he shattered his ribs on the desk here, he was down and out for the count."2
In the final climax of the movie, Trautman corners Rambo and tries to convince him to surrender. Rambo's resulting monologue is the most profound moment in the movie and drives home the themes of PTSD and life back at home for Vietnam War veterans. Stallone wrote the scene himself and had to fight the movie executives for its inclusion. According to Stallone,
"I had a big disagreement with the powers that be over this scene but I felt… I could try to, like, give some sense of hope to these guys that if they could somehow be understood or be able to vocalize what their dealings are, there was some sense of redemption and we had some disagreement about this, but I, really, I felt committed to it and after this scene I went to a couple Vietnam vets that were sitting offscreen I said, what do you think, he goes, you did us proud."3
Stallone felt very strongly that First Blood should do justice to the struggles endured by war veterans, and this scene is a result of his advocacy. In an interview with the 1985 New York Times, he vocalizes his feelings about the reality of returning home for these men:
''The men who fought for us in Vietnam got a raw deal. Their country told them to fight. They did their best! They come home and they're scorned. People spit at them. Men who fight for their country deserve respect. And if you don't give it to them you're in a bad situation, because they're going to demand it. It left scars, that period, and I'm glad we've come out of it."4
8. Choosing an Ending
While evading the sheriff, Rambo manoeuvres his motorbike through the Chevron gas station. In one shot, the distinctive red roofline of what is now the Hope Pizza Place can be seen in the background of the scene. In another, you can see the backside of the Hope Motor Hotel.
When First Blood released to American cinemas on October 22, 1982, it grossed $156 million at the box office and was a smashing commercial success, spawning a franchise that took the world by storm.
The film, however, wasn't at first great. In the editing room, things did initially not go well. In Stallone's own words, "It was not working." After some masterful editing, however, the production team released a 40 minute cut to financial executives, and despite Stallone's initial anxieties, he was blown away.1
* * *
While the sequels were due in part to the huge success of First Blood, they would not have been possible without a huge change to the movie's ending. In director Ted Kotcheff's original ending, Rambo was supposed to commit suicide. He felt that this ending was a reflection of the tragedy suffered by Vietnam War veterans years after the conflict's conclusion. However, after shooting the ending, Stallone voiced his concerns to Kotcheff and argued that a happier ending would do better justice to Rambo's story and would play better with audiences.
In a 2019 interview with Den of Geek, Sylvester Stallone remembers that he felt Rambo's story deserved a better ending: “Yeah I tried – in the first one they wanted him to be eliminated like in the book and I said ‘That doesn’t fly’ because this is going to be an ongoing concern for generations of these returning vets, so I wanted to keep that story alive, but without hitting it over the head.”2
The impact of First Blood on pop culture and on fans worldwide is undebatable, but for the community of Hope, the film is celebrated on a much more personal level.
In a recent interview, Hope local and First Blood enthusiast Brian McKinney talks passionately about the film's legacy. He cites the practical effects and real stunt work as one of the movie's enduring draws. Brian describes the real injuries suffered by the actors in the high risk stunts and the real explosions that drew Hope's residents out of their homes in the early hours of the morning to observe.
The intersection of Old Princeton Way and Water Avenue is seen near the beginning of the film when Rambo walks under Hope’s original “Welcome to Hope” sign and “Gateway to Holidayland” wooden archway as he enters town. Remnants of the archway can be seen at the entrance to the Hope Lookout Trail. Today, the Hope Princeton Highway overpass crosses Highway 1.
* * *
While Hope was an ideal location for the setting of First Blood in many ways, according to actor Brian Dennehy, it was not without its challenges. The tight, narrow canyon and the difficult terrain around the Othello Tunnels was a particular problem for the film crew. The time of year also restricted the filming hours to between 8 a.m and 3:30 p.m, after which the sun descended too low to provide adequate lighting.
Dennehy also noted that one of the movie's most incredible stunts involved a "150-foot drop from the helicopter to an air bag and jump off a cliff and down a fir tree."1 He adds that the work of the Canadian helicopter pilot in the Coquihalla Gorge was nothing short of "extraordinary".2
In the film's DVD commentary, Sylvestor Stallone had his own thoughts about the difficulty of the scenes shot in the Coquihalla Gorge. He recalled being concerned about slipping on the wet, mossy surface of the cliffside. "And now, I'm at the edge, I said you gotta be kidding me, I turned to the director I said this is… this is not good cause the moss at the very edge, we could slide right off the edge. So, right there they decided to tie a rope to my ankle, so if I fell over, it would - yknow basically, you could retrieve the body. I mean, it's not gonna save you cause you're gonna go over, it's kinda like the bell clapper effect, down smash on the side of the hill, and that was it. I knew I was in trouble when I looked around and the entire crew, and the director - they were tied to trees and I'm the only one hanging out on the moss.".3
Stallone also recounts another safety rule necessitated by the Coquihalla wilderness: "For people that wonder how people, other people, get lost in the forest, let me just say that we had a standing rule here among the crew, don't ever go more than 50 yards or even less away from the people you are working with cause everything, everything looks the same. There is no outstanding features anywhere. They're all the same trees, the same rock, the same underbrush, so you get confused… I mean, how can you find anything in this ecological mess?."4
One cheeky editorial comic in the Hope Standard effectively summarizes the weather conditions during filming.
10. Hope Explodes
In this scene, Rambo spectacularly blows up a gas station as a diversion as he plots his final showdown with Sheriff Teasle and his allies. The doomed gas station was built for the movie specifically to be destroyed.
The gas station explosion is one of First Blood's most exciting moments and was shot in its entirety with practical effects. The building was only about 13 metres (40 feet) long and six metres (20 feet) deep, and it was constructed with fake gas pumps.
In order to pull off the explosion, the set was filled with virtually every combustible that was available. Dynamite, gun powder, gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel were all packed into the small space under the supervision of the film's pyrotechnic specialists. Stakes were high on the night of the shooting. Due to time and budgetary restraints, the crew only had one chance to get the shot right.1
* * *
According to Brian McKinney, a First Blood enthusiast and a lifelong Hope resident, the atmosphere on set was tense as the entire town came out to watch the event.
"The entire town was out for the shooting of the explosion of the gas station. The whole town was out, you could tell that the crew was jacked. Director Ted Kotcheff, there was a nervous energy… I can remember Ted Kotcheff being so nervous, he was on his megaphone there, and he was like 'Okay, Hope, British Coumbia, are you ready?' everyone's like 'wooo!' right, I think there was like 3,000 people all lining the street there and he goes 'Okay, does everyone know what's gonna happen here tonight?' and everyone's kinda like 'noo!' and he's like, 'well that's good, cause neither do we!' right? There was a nervous, nervous energy."2
As the crew prepared for the big moment, they cleared everyone to a safe distance. Then, the set exploded. Brian remembers, "Just across the street, people were getting stuff dumped on them, there was flaming things falling from the sky, like the heat and everything, and everyone's all 'wooooo!' there was a big cheer from the crowd and Ted was yelling 'CUT CUT CUT!' and everyone, even the set, everybody was all freaking out and loving it."3
The Hope Standard reported on the event later: "A 'couple balls of fire' and 'bits of junk went flying' during the explosion of the gas station last Thursday at approximately 10:30 pm." The article continues on to describe the fire and the work of the Hope Fire Department in extinguishing any leftover flames: "The station was located on the Hope-Princeton highway, next to Ryan's Restaurant. On Friday morning, the rubble and charred cars and army trucks were still smoking. Several motorists stopped to take pictures or just look at the destruction." 4
11. Crossing Lines
At the beginning of the movie, the sheriff drops Rambo off on the bridge to Portland, Oregon. When Rambo defies the sheriff by instead turning around and heading back into town, Teasle arrests him, sparking the beginning of their feud. In reality, this bridge leads east and eventually joins the BC-5 Coquihalla Highway. The original bridge was demolished in 2011.
First Blood launched the character of Rambo into worldwide success, but no action hero is complete without a good antagonist. Sheriff Will Teasle, played by Brian Dennehy, is a Korean War veteran who quickly develops a personal vendetta against the young vagrant. While Sheriff Teasle is depicted as a grouchy, volatile, and imposing character, Brian Dennehy was the complete opposite.
* * *
Sadly, Dennehy passed away in April of 2020 at the age of 81. He is fondly remembered by the community of Hope. According to Brian McKinney from the Hope, Cascades & Canyons Visitor Centre, "Brian became one of the 'locals' when he was here… He was very personable and very approachable, unlike Stallone which you were not allowed to approach - you needed to be introduced via a third party as his personal bodyguard did not leave his side."1
Brian explains that Dennehy stayed downtown more than anyone else from the production: "He would have coffee with the old guys and play the coffee game to see who would buy or sometimes Brian would just pick up the tab. Same went with the Hope Motor Hotel when it came to after work. He was known to buy a round of beer or two."
"His large size, broad shoulders and intimidating presence was anything but, yet he was once described from a girl who served him a beer and got a hug as 'big teddy bear' and really nice man."2
Brian Dennehy had many kind words for the people of Hope in return. In a December 2, 1981 interview with the Hope Standard, he expressed his gratitude to the community: "We've been charmed by your welcome and the beautiful attitude of the people… It's always a pleasant surprise for me, coming to a small town from New York and finding people who are friendly, open, nice and concerned about you as an individual… All of us are very grateful, and we apologize for all the American flags."3
1. The Feud Begins
1. Carli Berry, "40 years of First Blood: Celebrities travelling to rural B.C. town to celebrate Rambo film," Kamloops News, June 26, 2022, online.
2. "Stallone lights up Hope during Filming," THe Chilliwack Progress, December 2, 1981, online.
1. BC Transportation and Infrastructure, facebook, September 27, 2017, online.
2. "Stallone lights up Hope during Filming," THe Chilliwack Progress, December 2, 1981, online.
3. Sylvester Stallone, (@Officialslystallone), Instagram, August 31, 2019, online.
1. Jim Hemphill, "Ted Kotcheff on Making First Blood, Changing Rambo's Suicide Mission and (Not) Working with Kirk Douglas," Filmmaker Magazine, June 7, 2016, online.
2. First Blood, Directed by Ted Kotcheff (Carolco Pictures, 1982), 93 minutes.
4. Hope's Shops
1. Advertisement, The Hope Standard, Nov. 18, 1981, online.
2. Advertisement, The Hope Standard, Nov. 18, 1981, online.
3. Advertisement, The Hope Standard, Nov. 18, 1981, online.
5. The Sheriff's Station
1. "Filming downtown," The Hope Standard, Nov. 25 1981, online.
2. "550 sign for movie," The Hope Standard, Nov. 10, 1981, online.
3. "550 sign for movie," The Hope Standard, Nov. 10, 1981, online.
4. "Filming downtown," The Hope Standard, Nov. 25 1981, online.